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Where exactly do I find the htaccess file? At which point my Magento installation?
The full name of the file is .htaccess (notice the dot at the beginning).
Unless I missed it it looks like your ftp program does not display the file - this can happen because files starting with a dot are often ‘hidden’ files.
So most likely you need to change the options of your ftp program so that it displays the files.
If you use a Mac you might not even see the file on your local installation. If that is the case please google around for ‘show hidden files OSX’ or similar.