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Copying a Magento store can be a picky process depending on how you approach it. You really only need two things: your files and your database.
Copy the files to a new domain, and dump the database, and import it into a separate database.
Once complete, update the Magento base URL settings in your database’s core_config_data table.
To make sure new extension installations don’t break the store, remove downloader/pearlib/pear.ini OR if you are familiar with SSH, run:
./pear mage-setup .
From the document root.
Finally, remove var/cache and var/session and you should be all set!