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I can’t put bars in left and right sides of the template as “default” Magento’s template. I want to have in the left bar the categories and in the right bar the shopping cart, but I can’t, the theme “blocks” this option? Aditionally (I don’t know if I should to create a new post with this question), I want to have the “checkout” button when a item has added to the cart; this theme don’t have one.
What you need to use then is the 3-column layout for your pages. This will use the left and right bars.
One you have used this option you should then go to template>layout>page.xml in your modern theme folder. You can then re-organise your xml file by placing things within the “left” and “right” blocks. This is how you allow features to be displayed in certain areas.